Introduction to IaC: Deploying Data infrastructure to Azure using Terraform (Part 1 - Intro and prerequisites)
One integral part of modern Continuous Integration and Continuous Development (CI/CD) pipelines is the ability to create the underlying infrastructure as part of the pipeline in a consistent and repeatable manner.
Infrastructure as Code (IaC) offers this capability, allowing us to automate and deploy multi-cloud infrastructure as definition scripts.
This approach helps us to reduce time invested in provisioning the infrastructure, as well as reducing human errors or misconfigurations. The infrastructure can also be redeployed to other environments knowing that the configuration will be the same each time.
Although Azure offers ARM templates and AWS offers CloudFormation, these are just for its respective cloud provider.
Which option do we have if we need an enterprise-grade solution that supports multi-cloud environments and can integrate with our CI/CD pipelines?
Terraform is a declarative, open source IaC tool that can deploy to multiple cloud providers and offers a great documentation and community support. Is one of the most used IaC tools in the world because of its reliability and ease of use.
Terraform scripts are created in Hashicorp Configuration Language (HCL) or JSON. For this article we will be using HCL.
Basic terraform files have the .tf extension, usually we need at least one main.tf file to work.
The infrastructure status at any given point is stored in the Terraform State, it helps to keep control of what should be created, updated or destroyed.
The most common objects of Terraform are:
Backend: where the terraform state is stored, can be standard or enhanced. Each type can be stored locally or remotely.
Providers: Target where we want to deploy our infrastructure, it uses each cloud provider’s API and RPC calls to communicate with it.
Modules: Offer simplified ways to deploy some common solutions that enclose multiple resources, it helps reduce coding efforts and offers code reusability, can be developed by official cloud providers, Terraform, or by any individual.
Resource: Object to be deployed, it can have multiple parameters and configuration options. If no optional parameter is provided, the defaults configured in the provider or module are used.
There are a lot more parts of Terraform files and configuration, but that is the basic information we need for now.
Once you have your scripts ready, the usual Terraform lifecycle looks like this (in very simplified way):
We will see how to use each one in our example, but for now, let me briefly explain each one:
Terraform init: Allow us to initialize our project, it downloads the required providers and modules, or updates them to the latest required version.
Terraform validate: Parses the script file and verifies the integrity of the code, it highlights syntax errors or undefined properties or values.
Terraform plan: It compares the current Terraform state, and determines which changes, if any, should be performed. It displays the proposed information for review and can be saved to a plan file.
Terraform apply: It deploys the required changes to the cloud provider and updates the state file with the latest changes. It also allows us to refresh the Terraform state with the latest changes from the cloud provider using the refresh-only option.
Terraform destroy: It allows us to destroy the infrastructure partially or totally. If we run the apply command after a destroy, all resources will be created again.
Terraform concepts and lifecycle are a more complex topic so is not possible to cover everything on this article. I provided just enough information so we can proceed with a simple Azure SQL deployment.
On this article we will use Terraform on our local machine to deploy common Azure data resources. We will start with a very basic script so you can understand the fundamentals on how IaC works with Terraform.
On next articles, we can use VCS like GitHub and use Terraform Cloud to implement versioning and more secure workflow.
- Install Terraform on your local machine or dev workstation. You can find instructions here.
- Note: if you are using windows, just add the terraform.exe path to PATH environment variable.
- Install the CLI for the provider you want to use, for this example, we will use Azure CLI.
- Authenticate to Azure CLI, so you can store your credentials locally: az login
- If you do not have it already, install VSCode, we will use it as our IDE.
- Install these 2 extensions as it will make your life easier:
- Hashicorp Terraform
- Hashicorp HCL